How will a comprehensive electrification of the transport sector affect the power system?
For OED's work on energy issues, NVE has analyzed and evaluated how a comprehensive transformation into electricity in the transport sector can affect power and power needs in Norway. The evaluations are done with different calculation examples, through discussion of results and by looking at conditions that can affect the results. Electricity means the battery-electric vehicle. Various hybrid solutions are not discussed.
The main findings in the analysis are:
- Extensive electrification of the transport sector in Norway can create challenges in today's distribution network. Primarily for transformers.
- Any full electrification of transport is usually not completed before 20 to 30 years.
- In the course of 20 to 30 years, much of today's transformers and power lines in the distribution grid will be replaced and thus better equipped to cope with full electrification of transport.
- Smart loading and reloading systems can reduce power grids when many people leave their electric car at the same time
- Analyzes of the power balance in Norway / The Nordic countries indicate that there is enough power in the Nordic power market for extensive electrification of transport in Norway.
Heating in households
This report provides an overview of the heating equipment installed in homes today and how this changed in the period 1993 to 2012. Panel heaters are still the most widely used heating solution in homes, but the proportion of houses with panel heaters is falling. It is in detached houses, farmhouses and townhouses we find most air-air heat pumps and wood-burning stoves, whereas common central heating and district heating are primarily found in block apartments. The report also shows that the largest homes have implemented more isolation measures than the smaller housing units.
Energy consumption in teaching buildings
The report presents purpose-based energy consumption for the building types kindergartens, schools and university college buildings. In addition, drivers for energy consumpton in teaching buildings are discussed. Here drivers have been divided into drivers that affect the area development for education buildings and drivers that affect specific energy consumption (kWh / m2 per year) in the building mass in general and teaching buildings in special.
Energy consumption in business buildings
The report presents purpose-based energy use for the building types shopping malls, grocery stores and other single stores. In addition, drivers for energy consumption in business buildings are discussed. Here you have divided into drivers that affect the area development for business buildings and drivers that affect specific energy consumption (kWh / m2 per year) in business buildings.
Energy Utilities 2013
Description and economic analysis of energy-intensive industry in Norway
Energy-intensive industry includes the most energy- and emission-intensive industries in Norway. Many of the companies in this group have been hit hard by financial crisis, rising energy prices and bad markets in recent years. The consequence has been reduced production, low profitability and closure of businesses. The purpose of this report is to find out how the economic situation of energy-intensive industry is by 2012, how energy and emission costs affect the profitability of companies and how prospects look forward.
Energy is a significant cost for the energy-intensive industries, but it is commodities that are the largest cost item. Commodities account for more than 50 percent of the cost of many energy-intensive businesses. Energy compares from 10 to 30 percent of the total cost. Manufacturers of primary aluminum and ferroalloys and silicon metal manufacturers have the highest energy costs.
The profitability of energy-intensive industry has been poor since the financial crisis. The exception is chemical raw materials and mineral industry. Worst is the paper industry and the solar cell industry. Low prices on the company's end products and increased costs are the reason why more companies are struggling. Although energy is not the biggest cost, a doubling of power prices since 2000 has contributed to today's poor profitability.
There have been several public measures and instruments in recent years that can provide good framework conditions for industry when business conditions improve. The new energy license system provides the prospect of reasonable power prices, compensation for CO2 emissions in power prices will reduce power costs and the Enova climate fund provides opportunities for large funds for energy and climate measures in the companies.
Favorable development in the krone exchange rate and low prices for CO2 quotas are other factors that provide positive prospects for energy-intensive industry in Norway.
Trends and drivers for energy use in office buildings
The report focuses on analyzing historical energy use in office buildings and drivers for Development.